Shipping Glossary


The process of receiving a consignment from a consignor, usually against the issue of a receipt. As from this moment and on this place the carrier's responsibility for the consignment begins.
Accidents of a nature beyond human control such as flood, lightning or hurricane usually quoted as 'force majeure'.
In proportion to the value: A phrase applied to certain freight or customs duties levied on goods, property, etc. set as a percentage of their value.
A written piece of information e.g. about the status of the goods.
Fee payable by a ship owner or ship operator to a port agent.
A person or organization authorized to act for or on behalf of another person or organization. An Agent is a corporate body with, which there is an agreement to perform particular functions on behalf of them at an agreed payment. An Agent is either a part of the organisation or an independent body.
Abbreviation: AWB A document made out by or on behalf of the carrier(s) confirming receipt of the goods by the carrier and evidencing the contract between the shipper and the carrier(s) for the carriage of goods as described therein.
The process of referring to an agreed person for judgement on issues of dispute, without requiring the use of courts.
The date on which goods or a means of transport is due to arrive at the delivery site of the transport.
A notice sent by a carrier to a nominated notify party advising of the arrival of a certain shipment or consignment.
A trader authorized by the European Commission (regulation 2454/93) to receive or dispatch consignments under transit procedures without having to present goods and documents directly at the customs office.
The commission to a certain person or body to act on behalf of another person or body. The person or body can be authorized e.g. to issue Bills of Lading or to collect freight.
In marine insurance: a loss or damage to or in respect of goods or equipment. The numerical result obtained by dividing the sum of two or more quantities by the number of quantities
In general average affairs average adjusters are entrusted with the task of apportioning the loss and expenditure over the parties interested in the maritime venture and to determine which expenses are to be regarded as average or general average.

A particular article, stipulation or single proviso in a Bill of Lading. A clause can be standard and can be pre-printed on the B / L.
Accidents of a nature beyond human control such as flood, lightning or hurricane usually quoted as 'force majeure'.
An undertaking by a bank to be answerable for payment of a sum of money in the event of non performance by the party on whose behalf the guarantee is issued.
A method of encoding data for fast and accurate electronic readability. Bar codes are a series of alternating bars and spaces printed or stamped on products, labels, or other media, representing encoded information which can be read by electronic readers, used to facilitate timely and accurate input of data to a computer system. Bar codes represent letters and/or numbers and special characters like +, /, -, etc.
A vertical division of a vessel from stem to stern, used as a part of the indication of a stowage place for containers. The numbers run from stem to stern; odd numbers indicate a 20 foot position, even numbers indicate a 40 foot position.
A stowage plan which shows the locations of all the containers on the vessel.
A location in a port where a vessel can be moored often indicated by a code or name.
Agreement between two nations concerning their transport relations.
Abbreviation: ABS American classification society which has established rules and regulations for the classification of seagoing vessels or equipment.
The Bill of Health is the certificate issued by local medical authorities indicating the general health conditions in the port of departure or in the ports of call. The Bill of Health must have been visaed before departure by the Consul of the country of destination. When a vessel has free pratique, this means that the vessel has a clean Bill of Health certifying that there is no question of contagious disease and that all quarantine regulations have been complied with, so that people may embark and disembark.
Abbreviation: B/L, plural Bs/L A document which evidences a contract of carriage by sea.
A receipt for goods, signed by a duly authorised person on behalf of the carriers A document of title to the goods described therein Evidence of the terms and conditions of carriage agreed upon between the two parties
A particular article, stipulation or single proviso in a Bill of Lading. A clause can be standard and can be pre-printed on the B/L.
A list of all parts, sub-assemblies and raw materials that constitute a particular assembly, showing the quantity of each required item.
A list of all parts, sub-assemblies and raw materials that constitute a particular assembly, showing the quantity of each required item.
In good faith; without dishonesty, fraud or deceit.
The storage of certain goods under charge of customs viz. customs seal until the import duties are paid or until the goods are taken out of the country. >Bonded warehouse (place where goods can be placed under bond) Bonded store (place on a vessel where goods are placed behind seal until the time that the vessel leaves the port or country again) Bonded goods (dutiable goods upon which duties have not been paid i.e. goods in transit or warehoused pending customs clearance)
The offering by a shipper of cargo for transport and the acceptance of the offering by the carrier or his agent.
The number assigned to a certain booking by the carrier or his agent.
In good faith; without dishonesty, fraud or deceit. To commence discharge
General cargo conventionally stowed as opposed to unitised, containerised and Roll On-Roll Off cargo.
Person who acts as an agent or intermediary in negotiating contracts.
The old Customs Co-operation Council Nomenclature for the classification of goods. Now replaced by the Harmonised System
A quantity of goods or articles kept in store to safeguard against unforeseen shortages or demands.
Unpacked homogeneous cargo poured loose in a certain space of a vessel or container e.g. oil and grain.
Single deck vessel designed to carry homogeneous unpacked dry cargoes such as grain, iron ore and coal.
Abbreviation: BAF Adjustment applied by liner or liner conferences to offset the effect of fluctuations in the cost of bunkers.
Quantity of fuel on board a vessel.
French classification society.
A business process is the action taken to respond to particular events, convert inputs into outputs, and produce particular results. Business processes are what the enterprise must do to conduct its business successfully.
The business process model provides a breakdown (process decomposition) of all levels of business processes within the scope of a business area. It also shows process dynamics, lower-level process interrelationships. In Summary it includes all diagrams related to a process definition that allows for understanding what the business process is doing (and not how).
Party to which merchandise is sold. The process of receiving a consignment from a consignor, usually against the issue of a receipt. As from this moment and on this place the carrier's responsibility for the consignment begins.

Terms of payment: if the buyer of goods pays for the goods against transfer of the documents, entitling him to obtain delivery of the goods from the carrier.
Adjustment applied by P&O Nedlloyd lines or liner conferences on freight rates to offset losses or gains for carriers resulting from fluctuations in exchange rates of tariff currencies.
Council of European and Japanese National Shipowner's Associations.
Transport of goods between two ports or places located in the same country. Transport of cargo in a country other than the country where the vehicle is registered road-cargo) The carriage of a container from a surplus area to an area specified by the Owner of that container, in exchange of which and during which the operator can use this container
The visit of a vessel to a port.
A location in a port where a vessel can be moored often indicated by a code or name. Note: The code structure is based on a three digit designation series assigned by the ITU and a one digit assigned by the country of registration
The ability, in a given time, of a resource measured in quality and quantity The quantity of goods which can be stored in or loaded into a warehouse, store and/or loaded into a means of transport at a particular time
Goods transported or to be transported, all goods carried on a ship covered by a B/L. Any goods, wares, merchandise, and articles of every kind whatsoever carried on a ship, other than mail, ship's stores, ship's spare parts, ship's equipment, stowage material, crew's effects and passengers' accompanied baggage (IMO) Any property carried on an aircraft, other than mail, stores and accompanied or mishandled baggage Also referred to as 'goods' (ICAO
All procedures necessary to enable the physical handling of goods. When a vessel has free pratique, this means that the vessel has a clean Bill of Health certifying that there is no question of contagious disease and that all quarantine regulations have been complied with, so that people may embark and disembark.
A vehicle, container, pallet, flat, portable tank or any other entity or any part thereof which belongs to the ship but is not permanently attached to that ship.
Abbreviation: B/L, plural Bs/L A document which evidences a contract of carriage by sea.
The process of transporting (conveying) cargo, from one point to another.
Abbreviation: CIP Carrier The party undertaking transport of goods from one point to another.
The inland transport service, which is performed by the sea-carrier under the terms and conditions of the tariff and of the relevant transport document.
Terminal, Pre-terminal port or Post-terminal Port as per tariff, indicated on the Bill of Lading and which is not the port physically called at by Carriers' ocean vessels. Note: Under normal circumstances in the B/L only ports should be mentioned which are actually called at
When the shipper ships goods 'collect', the carrier has a possessory claim on these goods, which means that the carrier can retain possession of the goods as security for the charges due
The offering by a shipper of cargo for transport and the acceptance of the offering by the carrier or his agent.
Abbreviation: CAD Terms of payment: if the buyer of goods pays for the goods against transfer of the documents, entitling him to obtain delivery of the goods from the carrier
Abbreviation: COD Terms of payment: if the carrier collects a payment from the consignee and remits the amount to the shipper (air cargo).
Let the buyer beware, purchaser must ascertain the condition of the goods to be purchased prior to the purchase.
A vessel, specially designed and equipped for the carriage of containers..
A certificate, issued by the classification society and stating the class under which a vessel is registered.
A certificate, showing the country of original production of goods. Frequently used by customs in ascertaining duties under preferential tariff programmes or in connection with regulating imports from specific sources.
An amount to be paid for carriage of goods based on the applicable rate of such carriage, or an amount to be paid for a special or incidental service in connection with the carriage of goods.
A separate, identifiable element of charges to be used in the pricing/rating of common services rendered to customers.
A contract in which the ship owner agrees to place his vessel or a part of it at the disposal of a third party, the charterer, for the carriage of goods for which he receives a freight per ton cargo, or to let his vessel for a definite period or trip for which a hire is paid synonym: Charter Contract
The legal person who has signed a charter party with the owner of a vessel or an aircraft and thus hires or leases a vessel or an aircraft or a part of the capacity thereof.
A wheeled carriage onto which an ocean container is mounted for inland conveyance The part of a motor vehicle that includes the engine, the frame, suspension system, wheels, steering mechanism etc., but not the body
A charge made against a carrier for loss, damage or delay.
Arrangement according to a systematic division of a number of objects into groups, based on some likeness or some common traits.
An Organisation, whose main function is to carry out surveys of vessels, its purpose being to set and maintain standards of construction and upkeep for vessels, their engines and their safety equipment. A classification society also inspects and approves the construction of containers
A Bill of Lading which does not contain any qualification about the apparent order and condition of the goods to be transported (it bears no stamped clauses on the front of the B/L). It bears no superimposed clauses expressly declaring a defective condition of the goods or packaging (resolution of the ICS 1951).
When goods are loaded on board and the document issued in respect to these goods is clean. Note: Through the usage of the UCP 500 rules the term has now become superfluous
A party with which a company has a commercial relationship concerning the transport of e.g. cargo or concerning certain services of the company concerned, either directly or through an agent.
The loading, on the way, of cargo from another shipper, having the same final destination as the cargo loaded earlier.
Intermodal transport where the major part of the journey is by one mode such as rail, inland waterway or sea and any initial and/or final leg carried out by another mode such as road.
Abbreviation: CTD Negotiable or non-negotiable document evidencing a contract for the performance and/or procurement of performance of combined transport of goods. Thus a combined transport document is a document issued by a Carrier who contracts as a principal with the Merchant to effect a combined transport often on a door-to-door basis.
Abbreviation: CTO A party who undertakes to carry goods with different modes of transport.
A document showing commercial values of the transaction between the buyer and seller.
Anything called for as requirements before the performance or completion of something else Contractual stipulations which are printed on a document or provided separately
The general terms and conditions established by a carrier in respect of the carriage (air cargo).
Terms and conditions shown on the Air Waybill (air cargo).
Accumulation of vessels at a port to the extent that vessels arriving to load or discharge are obliged to wait for a vacant berth.
The party such as mentioned in the transport document by whom the goods, cargo or containers are to be received.
A separate identifiable number of goods (available to be) transported from one consignor to one consignee via one or more than one modes of transport and specified in one single transport document.
Instructions from either the seller/consignor or the buyer/consignee to a freight forwarder, carrier or his agent, or other provider of a service, enabling the movement of goods and associated activities. The following functions can be covered: Movement and handling of goods (shipping, forwarding and stowage) Customs formalities Distribution of documents Allocation of documents (freight and charges for the connected operations) Special instructions (insurance, dangerous goods, goods release, additional documents required)
A document prepared by the shipper and comprising a transport contract. It contains details of the consignment to be carried to the port of loading and it is signed by the inland carrier as proof of receipt.
To group and stuff several shipments together in one container.
Container stuffed with several shipments (consignments) from different shippers for delivery to one or more consignees.
Location where consolidation of consignments takes place.

Written statement concerning established damages to cargo and/or equipment.
Goods are to be considered dangerous if the transport of such goods might cause harm, risk, peril, or other evil to people, environment, equipment or any property whatsoever.
Document issued by a consignor in accordance with applicable conventions or regulations, describing hazardous goods or materials for transport purposes, and stating that the latter have been packed and labelled in accordance with the provisions of the relevant conventions or regulations.
A document as part of the dangerous goods declaration in which the responsible party declares that the cargo has been stowed in accordance with the rules in a clean container in compliance with the IMDG regulations and properly secured.
Slots paid for but not used.
Abbreviation: DWT The total weight of cargo, cargo equipment, bunkers, provisions, water, stores and spare parts which a vessel can lift when loaded to her maximum draught as applicable under the circumstances. The dead-weight is expressed in tons.
The ability, in a given time, of a resource measured in quality and quantity The quantity of goods which can be stored in or loaded into a warehouse, store and/or loaded into a means of transport at a particular time
Document issued by a buyer giving instructions regarding the details of the delivery of goods ordered.
A document recording the delivery of products to a consignee (customer).
A carrier's delivery order (negotiable document) is used for splitting a B/L (after surrender) in different parcels and have the same function as a B/L. The authorisation of the entitled party for the shipment to a party other than the consignee showed on the Air Waybill (air cargo)
A variable fee charged to carriers and/or customers for the use of Unit Load Devices (ULD's) owned by a carrier beyond the free time of shipment Additional charge imposed for exceeding the free time, which is included in the rate and allowed for the use of certain equipment at the terminal
Information send by shippers to the recipient of goods informing that specified goods are sent or ready to be sent advising the detailed contents of the consignment.
Place for which goods or a vehicle is bound The ultimate stopping place according to the contract of carriage (air cargo)
Keeping equipment beyond the time allowed.
Charges levied on usage of equipment exceeding free time period as stipulated in the pertinent inland rules and conditions.
See Stripping, UnpackingDeviation from a Route A divergence from the agreed or customary route.
Measurements in length, width and height, regarding cargo.
The conveyance of goods directly from the vendor to the buyer. Frequently used if a third party acts as intermediary agent between vendor and buyer Direct discharge from vessel onto railroad car, road vehicle or barge with the purpose of immediate transport from the port area (usually occurs when ports lack adequate storage space or when ports are not equipped to handle a specific cargo)
Transfer of leased equipment from one lessee to another (container).
The shortest operated route between two points. The shortest operated route between two points.
The unloading of a vehicle, a vessel or an aircraft. The landing of cargo
Difference between the particulars given and the particulars found.
A warehouse for the receipt, the storage and the dispersal of goods among customers.
The route by which a company distributes goods.
The transport of cargo from the premises of the consignor to the premises of the consignee. Note: In the United States the term 'Point to Point Transport' is used instead of the term 'Door to Door Transport', because the term 'house' may mean 'customs house' or 'brokers house', which are usually located in the port.
A number of railway wagons, usually a block train, on which containers can be stacked two- high.
The draft of a vessel is the vertical distance between the waterline and the underside of the keel of the vessel. During the construction of a vessel the marks showing the draft are welded on each side of the vessel near the stem, the stern and amidships.
Repayment of any part of customs or excise duties previously collected on imported goods, when those goods are exported again.
The hauling of a load by a cart with detachable sides (dray) Road transportation between the nearest railway terminal and the stuffing place
Charge made by container owner and/or terminal operators for delivery of a leased, or pool container into depot stock. The drop-off charge may be a combination of actual handling and storage charges with surcharges.
Stowage material, mainly timber or board, used to prevent damage to cargo during carriage.
An area where goods or cargo can be stored without paying import customs duties awaiting further transport or manufacturing.

Abbreviation: UN/EDIFACT The ISO application level syntax rules for the structuring of user data and of the associated service data in the interchange of messages in an open environment.
Abbreviation: EDI The transfer of structured data, by agreed standards from applications on the computer of one party to the applications on the computer of another party by electronic means.
Abbreviation: EDP The computerised handling of information (e.g. business data).
A government order prohibiting the entry or departure of commercial vessels or goods at its ports The refusal by a carrier, for a limited period, to accept for transport over any route or segment thereof, and to or from any area or point, of a connecting carrier, any commodity, type of class of cargo duly tendered (air cargo)
Abbreviation: EMS Medical procedures in case of emergencies on board of vessels.
The transfer of the right to obtain delivery of the goods of the carrier by means of the consignee's signature on the reverse side of a bill of lading. If the name of the new consignee (transferee) is not stated, the endorsement is an open one which means that every holder of the document is entitled to obtain delivery of the goods.
Abbreviation: EIR Physical inspection and transfer receipt.
Abbreviation: ETA The expected date and time of arrival in a certain (air)port.
Abbreviation: ETD The expected date and time when a certain (air)port is left.
Abbreviation: EXW
The process of carrying or sending goods to another country or countries, especially for purposes of use or sale in the country of destination. The sale of products to clients abroad
Document granting permission to export as detailed within a specified time.
The party responsible for the export of goods.

Federal Maritime Commission (Control of Shipping acts USA)
Full Truck Load, an indication for a truck transporting cargo directly from supplier to receiver.
The delivery of goods by a factory whereby the goods are put at the disposal of another (internal) party such as a commercial department.
A vessel normally used for local or coastal transport (for carriage of cargo and/or containers) to and from ports not scheduled to be called by the main (ocean) vessel, directly connecting these ports to the main (ocean) vessel.
An indication of the country in which a means of transport is registered through a reference to the ensign of this country.
Capable to be set on fire under given circumstances. (Amendment 25 IMO DGS).
The lowest temperature at which a good produces enough vapour to form a flammable mixture with air.
A container with two end walls and open sides.
Any group of means of transport acting together or under one control.
Circumstance which is beyond the control of one of the parties to a contract and which may, according to the terms and conditions, relieve that party of liability for failing to execute the contract.
A three or four wheeled mechanical truck with forks at the front designed for lifting, carrying and stowing cargo.
Abbreviation: FEU Unit of measurement equivalent to one forty foot container.
The party arranging the carriage of goods including connected services and/or associated formalities on behalf of a shipper or consignee.
Charges paid or to be paid for preliminary surface or air transport to the airport of departure by a forwarder, but not by a carrier under an Air Waybill (air cargo).
Document issued to a freight forwarder, giving instructions to the forwarder for the forwarding of goods described therein.

A number of workmen acting together especially for loading and/or discharging operations of a vessel in combination with the necessary gear. (On a vessel for instance 6 gangs can be ordered to discharge or load.)
Clothes in containers on hangers and hung from rails during transit, reducing the handling required for the garments.
A point at which cargo is interchanged between carriers or modes of transport A means of access, an entry
Abbreviation: GATT Major international agreement on trade and tariffs between many nations all over the world. The discussions are now held by the WTO.
Abbreviation: G/A Intentional act or sacrifice which is carried out to safeguard vessel and cargo. When a vessel is in danger, the master has the right to sacrifice property and/or to incur reasonable expenditure. Measures taken for the sole benefit of any particular interest are not considered general average.
There is a general average act when, and only when any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure.
Cargo, consisting of goods, unpacked or packed, for example in cartons, crates, bags or bales, often palletised. General cargo can be shipped either in breakbulk or containerised Any consignment other than a consignment containing valuable cargo and charged for transport at general cargo rates (air cargo)
A Container with two end walls and open sides.A container used for the carriage of general cargo without any special requirements for the transport and or the conditioning of the goods.
Common term indicating movable property, merchandise or wares All materials which can be used to satisfy demands Whole or part of the cargo received from the shipper, including any equipment supplied by the shipper
Document issued by a port, warehouse, shed, or terminal operator acknowledging receipt of goods specified therein on conditions stated or referred to in the document.
He goods which have departed from the initial loading point and not yet arrived at the final unloading point.
The collection of several small consignments and the formation of one large shipment thereof (road cargo).

International convention for the unification of certain rules, relating to Bills of Lading (1924). These Rules include the description of responsibilities of Shipping Lines.
Set of rules, published in 1968, amending the Hague Rules.
United Nations Convention on the carriage of goods by sea of 1978 adopted in 1992.
Abbreviation: HS It is a numeric multi purpose system, the international convention on the HS was established under auspices of the World Customs Organisation in 1983, for the classification of goods with its six digits covering about 5000 descriptions of the products or groups of products most commonly produced and traded. It is designed for customs services, but can also be used for statistics, transport purposes, export, import and manufacturing.
The inland carriage of cargo or containers between named locations/points. Merchant inspired Carrier Haulage or customer nominated Carrier Haulage or shipper preferred Carrier Haulage service performed by a sub-contractor of the merchant Carrier inspired Merchant Haulage means Haulage service performed by a sub- contractor of the Carrier Carrier inspired Merchant Haulage means Haulage service performed by a sub- contractor of the Carrier
Road carrier.
The transport of cargo from the premises of the consignor to the premises of the consignee. Note: In the United States the term 'Point to Point Transport' is used instead of the term 'Door to Door Transport', because the term 'house' may mean 'customs house' or 'brokers house', which are usually located in the port.
The central transhipment point in a transport structure, serving a number of consignees and/or consignors by means of spokes. The stretches between hubs mutually are referred to as trunks.

The amount of ineffective time whereby the available resources are not used e.g. a container in a yard.
The status of goods or persons between the outwards customs clearance and inwards customs clearance.
Trade terms in coded form as established by the International Chamber of Commerce in 1953, whereafter they have been regularly updated. (Last update 2000). The terms represent a set of international rules for the interpretation of the principal terms of delivery used in trade contracts.
Transport document made out to a named person, to order or to bearer, signed by the carrier and handed to the sender after receipt of the goods.
A system of protection against loss under which a party agrees to pay a certain sum (premiums) for a guarantee that they will be compensated under certain conditions for loss or damage.
Proof of an insurance contract.
The party covering the risks of the issued goods and/or services that are insured.
The movement of goods (containers) in one and the same loading unit or vehicle which uses successively several modes of transport without handling of the goods themselves in changing modes.
Abbreviation: IATA An international organisation of airlines, founded in 1945, with the aim of promoting the commercial air traffic. Parties should achieve this by co-operation between the parties concerned and by performance of certain rules, procedures and tariffs, regarding both cargo and passengers.
Abbreviation: IACS An organisation in which the major classification societies, among others American Bureau of Shipping, Lloyd's Register of Shipping and Germanischer Lloyd, are joined, whose principal aim is the improvement of standards concerning safety at sea.
Abbreviation: ICS A voluntary organisation of national shipowner' associations with the objective to promote interests of its members, primarily in the technical and legal fields of shipping operations.
Abbreviation: IMDG Code A code, representing the classification of dangerous goods as defined by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) in compliance with international legal requirements.
Abbreviation: IMO An United Nations agency concerned with safety at sea. Its work includes codes and rules relating to tonnage measurement of vessels, load lines, pollution and the carriage of dangerous goods. Its previous name was the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO).
An account from the supplier, for goods and/or services supplied by him.

Goods thrown or lost.
The act of intentionally throwing cargo overboard e.g. with the objective of lightening a vessel, which has run aground, such for the common good of all interests: vessel, crew and remaining cargo.
A mole or breakwater, running out into the sea to protect harbours or coasts. It is sometimes used as a landing-pier.
Projecting arm of a crane
That work which is undertaken to meet a customer or production order and, for production control purposes, has a unique identification.
A joint activity of two or more companies usually performed under a common name.
A voyage from one place, port or country to another one, in case of a round trip, to the same one.
Juridical decisions used for explanation and meaning of law.
Abbreviation: JIT The movement of material/goods at the necessary place at the necessary time. The implication is that each operation is closely synchronised with the subsequent ones to make that possible. A method of inventory control that brings stock into the production process, warehouse or to the customer just in time to be used, thus reducing stock piling.

The convention for the International Customs Co-operation Council held in Kyoto in 1974 for the simplification and harmonisation of national customs procedures. On 25th of June 1999 the updated and restructured International Convention on the simplification and harmonisation of Customs Procedures (Kyoto Convention) was unanimously adopted by 114 customs administrations. This convention was restructured to deal with computerised controls and to ensure better co- operation between customs authorities mutually and with trade in general.

A slip of e.g. paper or metal attached to an object to indicate the nature, ownership, destination, contents and/or other particulars of the object.
To hold goods in position by the use of, e.g., wires, ropes, chains and straps.
The company from which property or equipment is taken on lease.
Abbreviation: LCL A general reference for identifying cargo in any quantity intended for carriage in a container, where the Carrier is responsible for packing and/or unpacking the container For operational purposes a LCL (Less than full container load) container is considered a container in which multiple consignments or parts thereof are shipped Abbreviation: LTL A term used if the quantity or volume of one or more consignment(s) does not fill a standard truck.
The party to whom the possession of specified property has been conveyed for a period of time in return for rental payments.
The party who conveys specified property to another for a period of time in return for the receipt of rent.
Abbreviation: L/C A written undertaking by a bank (issuing bank) given to the seller (beneficiary) at the request, and on the instructions of the buyer (applicant) to pay at sight or at a determinable future date up to a stated sum of money, within a prescribed time limit and against stipulated documents.
Written statement in which one party undertakes to compensate another for the costs and consequences of carrying out a certain act. The issue of a letter of indemnity is sometimes used for cases when a shipper likes receiving a clean Bill of Lading while a carrier is not allowed to do so.
Legal responsibility for the consequences of certain acts or omissions.
A legal claim upon real or personal property to pay a debt or duty.
A group of two or more vessel-operating carriers, which provides international liner services for the carriage of cargo on a particular trade route and which has an agreement or arrangement to operate under uniform or common freight rates and any other agreed conditions (e.g. FEFC = Far Eastern Freight Conference).
Abbreviation: LIFO Transport condition denoting that the freight rate is inclusive of the sea carriage and the cost of loading, the latter as per the custom of the port. It excludes the cost of discharging.
Condition of carriage denoting that costs for loading and unloading are borne by the carrier subject the custom of the port concerned.
British classification society.

Abbreviation: MLO A carrier employing vessel(s) in the main or principal routes in a trade but not participating within a consortium.
Document, which lists the specifications of goods, loaded in a means of transport or equipment for transportation purposes. As a rule cargo the agents in the place of loading draw up manifests. Note: For P&O Nedlloyd a manifest represents a cumulation of Bills of Lading for official and administrative purposes.
An insurance policy protecting the insured against loss or damage to his goods occurred during ocean transport.
A document signed by the chief officer of a vessel acknowledging the receipt of a certain consignment on board of that vessel. On this document, remarks can be made as to the order and condition of the consignment.
Abbreviation: MFAG Instructions to be consulted in case of accidents involving dangerous goods.
Inland transport of cargo in containers arranged by the Merchant. It includes empty container-moves to and from hand-over points in respect of containers released by the Carrier to Merchants. Note: Carrier's responsibility under the Bill of Lading does not include the inland transport stretch under Merchant Haulage.
The carriage of goods (containers) by at least two different modes of transport.
Negotiable or non-negotiable document evidencing a contract for the performance and/or procurement of performance of combined transport of goods. Thus a combined transport document is a document issued by a Carrier who contracts as a principal with the Merchant to effect a combined transport often on a door-to-door basis.
Abbreviation: MTO/Carrier The person on whose behalf the transport document or any document evidencing a contract of multimodal carriage of goods is issued and who is responsible for the carriage of goods pursuant to the contract of carriage.

Abbreviation: NVOCC A party who undertakes to carry goods and issues in his own name a Bill of Lading for such carriage, without having the availability of any own means of transport.
Address of the party other than the consignee to be advised of the arrival of the goods. As a rule cargo the agents in the place of loading draw up manifests.
The party to be notified of arrival of goods.

The carriage of goods (containers) by any mode of transport to the place of delivery after discharge from the ocean vessel (main means of transport) at the port (place) of discharge.
An organisation, which provides all needed requirements in one location.
A freight container similar in all respects to a general purpose container except that it has no rigid roof but may have a flexible and movable or removable cover, for example one made of canvas or plastic or reinforced plastic material normally supported on movable or removable roof bows.
Cargo which dimensions are exceeding the normal dimensions of a 20 or 40 feet container, e.g. overlength, overwidth, overheight, or combinations thereof.
Written statement by a stevedoring company in which the condition of cargo discharged from a vessel is noted along with any discrepancies in the quantity compared with the vessel's manifest. Instructions to be consulted in case of accidents involving dangerous goods.
Cargo, exceeding the standard height.
Cargo, exceeding the standard length.
Cargo, exceeding the standard width.
The legal owner of cargo, equipment or means of transport.

A mutual association of shipowners who provide protection against liabilities by means of contributions. Any physical piece of cargo in relation to transport consisting of the contents and its packing for the purpose of ease of handling by manual or mechanical means The final product of the packing operation consisting of the packing and its contents to facilitate manual or mechanical handling
Materials used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery and presentation of goods and the activities of placing and securing goods in those materials.

The period during which an arriving vessel, including its equipment, cargo, crew or passengers, suspected to carry or carrying a contagious disease is detained in strict isolation to prevent the spread of such a disease.
That part of a wharf which is intended for the mooring of vessels.

The price of a transport service Quantity, amount or degree measured or applied
That part of a transport charge which the carrier agrees to return.
A written acknowledgement, that something has been received.
Cargo requiring temperature control.
A thermal container with refrigerating appliances (mechanical compressor unit, absorption unit etc.) to control the temperature of cargo.
The process of splitting up shipments into various consignments (degroupage) and combining these small consignments into other shipments (groupage).
A document issued by or on behalf of the carrier authorising the release of import cargo identified thereon and manifested under a single Bill of Lading. Go to top Roll-on Roll-off Abbreviation: RoRo System of loading and discharging a vessel whereby the cargo is driven on and off by means of a ramp.
The track along which goods are (to be) transported.
The determination of the most efficient route(s) that people, goods, materials and or means of transport have to follow The process of determining how a shipment will be moved between consignor and consignee or between place of acceptance by the carrier and place of delivery to the consignee The process of aiding a vessel's navigation by supplying long range weather forecasts and indicating the most economic and save sailing route.

Abbreviation: STC Term in a Bill of Lading signifying that the master and the carrier are unaware of the nature or quantity of the contents of e.g. a carton, crate, container or bundle and are relying on the description furnished by the shipper.
The saving or rescue of a vessel and/or the cargo from loss and/or damage at sea.
A timetable including arrival/departure times of ocean- and feeder vessels and also inland transportation. It refers to named ports in a specific voyage (journey) within a certain trade indicating the voyage number(s). In general: The plan of times for starting and/or finishing activities.
A device used for containers, lockers, trucks or lorries to proof relevant parties that they have remained closed during transport.
Fitness of a vessel to travel in open sea mostly related to a particular voyage with a particular cargo. Seller Party selling merchandise to a buyer.
A service Bill (of Lading) is a contract of carriage issued by one carrier to another for documentary and internal control purposes For internal documentary and control purposes a so-called participating agent in a consortium uses some kind of document which, depending on the trade, is referred to as 'Memo Bill' which will among others state: Name of Carrier on whose behalf the original document (Way Bill, Bill of Lading, etc.) was issued The original document number. The agent who issued the original document and his opponent at the discharging side The number of packages, weight and measurement, marks and numbers and goods description Further mandatory details in case of special cargo No freight details will be mentioned and the Memo Bill is not a contract of carriage. Acts as intermediary between shipowners or carriers by sea on the one hand and cargo interests on the other. The functions are to act as forwarding agent or custom broker, fixing of charters, and acting as chartering agent.
A ship operator is either the shipowner or the (legal) person responsible for the actual management of the vessel and its crew.
Statement of the master of a vessel before (in the presence of) competent authorities, concerning exceptional events which occurred during a voyage.
A separately identifiable collection of goods to be carried. Note: In the United States of America the word shipment is used instead of the word consignment. The (legal) person officially registered as such in the certificate of registry where the following particulars are contained: Name of vessel and port of registry Details contained in surveyors certificate The particulars respecting the origin stated in the declaration of ownership The name and description of the registered owner, if more than one owner the proportionate share of each

A tank, surrounded by a framework with the overall dimensions of a container for the transport of liquids or gasses in bulk.
A vessel designed for the carriage of liquid cargo in bulk.
Mass of an empty container including all fittings and appliances associated with that particular type of container on its normal operating condition.

Party who has been designated on the invoice or packing list as the final recipient of the stated merchandise.
Luggage not accompanied by a passenger.
A number of individual packages bonded, palletised or strapped together to form a single unit for more efficient handling by mechanical equipment.
Abbreviation: UNCTAD A United Nations agency whose work in Shipping includes the liner code involving the sharing of cargoes between the Shipping lines of the importing and exporting countries and third countries in the ratio 40:40:20.
Abbreviation: UNDG Number The four-digit number assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods to classify a substance or a particular groups of substances. Note: The prefix 'UN' must always be used in conjunction with these numbers.

A consignment which contains one or more valuable articles.
Abbreviation: VAT A form of indirect sales tax paid on products and services at each stage of production or distribution, based on the value added at that stage and included in the cost to the ultimate customer.
Buyer.
Seller.
Abbreviation: VLCC A vessel designed for the carriage of liquid cargo in bulk with a loading capacity from 50.000 till 250.000 DWT.
Abbreviation: VLCC A floating structure designed for the transport of cargo and/or passengers Boiler, drum
Size or measure of anything in three dimensions.
A charge for carriage of goods based on their volume (air cargo).
A journey by sea from one port or country to another one or, in case of a round trip, to the same port.
A contract under which the shipowner agrees to carry an agreed quantity of cargo from a specified port or ports to another port or ports for a remuneration called freight, which is calculated according to the quantity of cargo loaded, or sometimes at a lumpsum freight.
Reference number assigned by the carrier or his agent to the voyage of the vessel.

Perils of war or warlike operations, such as capture, seizure, arrests, restraints of kings, princesses and people, hostilities, civil war, mines, torpedo's. War risks are not covered under a policy for marine perils and must therefore be covered under a separate policy for war risks.
A building specially designed for receipt, storage and handling of goods.
Receipt for products deposited in a warehouse.
Those activities of holding and handling goods in a warehouse (store).
The Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air, signed at Warsaw, 12 October 1929, or that Convention as amended by the Hague Protocol, 1955, stipulating obligations or parties and limitations and/or exonerations of carriers (air cargo).
Non-negotiable document evidencing the contract for the transport of cargo.
The charge for carriage of goods based on their weight (air cargo).
A place for berthing vessels to facilitate loading and discharging of cargo.
The fee charged for the use of a wharf for mooring, loading or discharging a vessel or for storing goods.

High frequency electromagnetic ray of short wave-length, capable of penetrating most solid substances.
International standard of the CCITT for packet switching.
A CCITT recommendation designed to facilitate international message and information exchange between subscribers of computer based store-and-forward services and office information systems in association with public and private data networks.
The CCITT now ITU recommendations (ISO9594) for the structure of directories for the maintenance of addresses used in electronic mail.
Extensible mark-up language is an official recommendation by the World Wide Web Consortium as a successor of HTML (Hyper Text Mark-up language) it can be used to convey documents layout and contents from one computer application to another. XML is a subset of SGML.
The exchange of structured information over the Internet using XML as the syntax.

Fenced off, outdoor storage and repair area.
Variation of the course of a ship to port or starboard caused by the action of waves or wind.
A vessel's small boat moved by one oar A small sailboat rigged fore-and-aft, with a short mizzenmast astern of the cockpit - distinguished from ketch
The remaining slot capacity for a trade/voyage in a certain port of loading after deduction of the allowance for specific contracts.
The process of maximising the contribution of every slot, vessel, trade and network. Basically it should be seen as the process of allocating the right type of capacity to the right kind of customer at the right price as to maximise revenue or yield. The concept should be used in combination with load factor management.
There is a general average act when, and only when any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure.

A rubber dinghy. An inflatable craft for the transport of people. Zone Area, belt or district extending about a certain point defined for transport and/or charge purpose.
The rate for which the carrier will undertake the haulage of goods or containers between either the place of delivery and the carrier's appropriate terminal. Such haulage will be undertaken only subject to the terms and conditions of the tariff and of the carrier's Combined Transport Bill of Lading.
Abbreviation: ZIP System to simplify sorting and delivery of mail, consisting of a number of five digits (the so-called ZIP-code) for identification of the state, city or district, and the postal zone in the U.S.A. delivery areas.